Energy environment ecology and society book pdf
HISTORY OF ECOLOGYDespite growing awareness and efforts to conserve biodiversity, ecosystems worldwide are still declining Botsford et al. Policy-makers and scientists too often frame the targets of diverse and productive ecosystems and healthy human societies as if they were in opposition Raudsepp-Hearne et al. This framing shapes the development of indicators for managing biodiversity and human well-being. Most internationally derived indicator sets e. Recent efforts to reconcile nature conservation and human development include promoting the integration of social sciences into conservation Mascia et al. These efforts have led to 1 more nuanced human well-being indicators, modified from the Human Development Index, to better integrate material conditions, quality of life e.
Energy, Environment, Ecology and Society, 1/e
A scenario is a coherent, internally consistent, and plausible description of a potential future trajectory of a system e. Scenario planning exercises aim at articulating multiple alternative futures in a way that spans a key set of critical uncertainties Peterson et al. Scenario planning has its roots in operations research developed in the Second World War and was substantially elaborated upon in corporate strategic planning in the s. It has been increasingly applied in diverse environmental research contexts during the past 25 years, including biodiversity assessments, the management of protected areas, ecosystem services ES , and their relationship to human well-being, climate change, and land-use change in general, and more specifically, desertification and land degradation e. The steady increase of scenario planning in environmental research can be attributed to a number of perceived benefits. These include fostering long-term and complex thinking that allows for an exploration of the dynamics and sustainability of social-ecological systems. The adaptability and accessibility of scenario planning compared to other modeling approaches might also explain this increasing trend.
15 Major Current Environmental Problems
Applied historical ecology is the use of historical knowledge in the management of ecosystems. Historical perspectives increase our understanding of the dynamic nature of landscapes and provide a frame of reference for assessing modern patterns and processes. Historical timeframes range from decades to millennia. As Aldo Leopold observed, "A science of land health needs, first of all, a base datum of normality, a picture of how healthy land maintains itself as an organism. Multiple, comparative histories from many locations can help evaluate both cultural and natural causes of variability and characterize the overall dynamic properties of ecosystems Swetnam et al. In fact, twentieth-century trends suggest that disregarding history can be perilous.