4 books and 5 classics of confucius
The Confucian Classics (howtogetridof-dandruff.com)At the heart of Chinese thought stand the five great classics, the traditional, time-honored works that define and originate Chinese culture and history. Chinese history, as the Chinese narrate it, blazes into existence with the great, partly divine heroes who teach the early Chinese all the arts of civilization: writing, law, architecture, art, and so on. The latter stands as the foundation of the Xia dynasty. During the various cycles of dynastic change, from the Xia to the Shang to the Zhou , the Five Classics, or the Confucian Classics even though they are not written by Confucius , were written down, or supposedly written down. These Five Classics constituted the program of learning for anyone in the upper classes, the ruling classes, or the educated classes. The Classics not only recorded early Chinese history infallibly, they also completely contained all the ethics and wisdom of China. Out of early divination practices from the Shang Dynasty comes the first classic, or what is traditionally considered the first classic, the I ching , or The Book of Changes.
The Five Classics
They were selected by Zhu Xi in the Song dynasty to serve as general introduction to Confucian thought, and they were, in the Ming and Qing dynasties, made the core of the official curriculum for the civil service examinations. Several of the texts were already prominent by the Warring States period. Mencius , the leading Confucian scholar of the time, regarded the Spring and Autumn Annals as being equally important as the semi-legendary chronicles of earlier periods. During the Western Han dynasty , which adopted Confucianism as its official ideology, these texts became part of the state-sponsored curriculum. It was during this period that the texts first began to be considered together as a set collection, and to be called collectively the "Five Classics". The Classic of Music is sometimes considered the sixth classic but was lost in the Burning of the Books.
Collectively called The Four Books and The Five Classics, they cover such a wide range of subjects as literature, history, philosophy, politics, economics, education, moral ethics, geology, arts, science and technology, etc. In short, they have a far-reaching influence on the way of existence, intellectual quality, moral ethics and esthetic values of the Chinese nation. They were, in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, made the core of the official curriculum for the civil service examinations. They are:. These books were compiled or edited by Confucius himself. Since most parts of it are destroyed during the Burning of the Books, the remaining sections are collected as two books in the Classic of Rites. Main Menu.
The compilation of the Wujing Five Classics was a concrete manifestation of the coming of age of the Confucian tradition. The Five Classics can be described in terms of five visions: metaphysical , political, poetic, social, and historical. According to the philosophy of change, the cosmos is a great transformation occasioned by the constant interaction of yin and yang , the two complementary as well as conflicting life forces qi. The world, which emerges out of that ongoing transformation, exhibits both organismic unity and dynamism. The political vision, contained in the Shujing , presents kingship in terms of the ethical foundation for a humane government.